the chains that tied them. Then He made obligatory upon him in the divine law the prayers, the poor due, fasts, pilgrimage, enjoying the good and prohibiting evil, the permissible and the unlawful, inheritance, penal code, obligations and striving in the way of Allah. He increased him by minor ablution and He graced him by the Fatihah of the Qur'an and the ends of the chapter of al-Baqarah and the short chapters. He allowed for him the booty and the lands won without warfare. He aided him with dread and made the earth a place of prostration and a source of purity. He sent him to the whole of mankind both white and black, man and jin. He allowed for him the tax given in return for protection by the people of the book and the captivation of the infidels. Then He vested responsibility upon him of the like He did not burden any of the prophets and descended upon him a sword from the heavens2 without a sheath. Then he was told, 'fight in the way of Allah and do not burden but yourself' (al-Nisa: 84)THE MEANING OF ULU AL-'AZM (MESSENGERS ENDOWED WITH GREAT DETERMINATION) AND THEIR NAMES
2. A group of our scholars report from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from 'Uthman b. 'Isa from Suma'ah b. Mihran, he said-
"I said to Abi 'Abd Allah (as) regarding the words of the most Grand, most Magnificent- "Be patient just as those messengers who were steadfast with determination (ulu al-'azm)" (al-Ahkaf: 35)
He said- [they are] Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, 'Isa and Muhammad (s)
I asked him-
How did these become the ones with great determination?
Because Nuh (a) was sent with a book and a code of law and everyone who came after Nuh (a) adhered to his book, code of law and practice. [This continued] until Ibrahim (a) came with the scriptures and a resolve of disregarding the book of Nuh (a) not disbelieving in it. Every prophet who came after him took to his code of law, practice and the scriptures. [This continued] until Musa (a) came with the Tawrah, his code of law and his practice with a resolve to discard the scriptures. Every prophet that came after Musa (a) adhered to the Tawrah, his code of law and his practice until the Masih (a) came with the Injil and a resolve to abandon the code of law of Musa and his practice. Every prophet that came after Masih took to his code of law and his practice until Muhammad (s) came, he brought the Qur'an and his code of law and his practice. His permissible will remain permissible until the Day of Resurrection and his Prohibition will remain prohibited until the Day of Resurrection. These are the ones endowed with great patience from the messengers"